Dill is traditionally one of the most popular and popular types of greens; demand is especially high in autumn and spring. Growing it will be interesting to people who want to produce high-quality greens themselves, and those who are interested in obtaining high yields for subsequent sale on the market.
Dill - a member of the umbrella family, has a pleasant smell, which is explained by the content of essential oils in it. In addition, vitamins of group B (B1, B2), vitamins C, E, PP, beneficial organic acids and carotene are present in greens. Nutritional value is represented by young shoots with 6-10 leaves, as well as tender leaves from adult plants. Use the plant in fresh, salted, dried forms.
The use of the product in food (in the form of seeds and greens) improves appetite, improves the functioning of the digestive tract, stabilizes blood pressure, and has a positive effect on the nervous system.
Low temperatures, light frosts are well tolerated by the plant, it is quite cold-resistant. Germination of seeds is possible already at + 3 °, although it can drag on for a good month. Essential oils, the concentration of which in the seeds are quite high, slow down the germination. Therefore, in order to accelerate germination, the seeds are pre-treated before sowing. Favorable temperature conditions - in the range of 15 ° -20 °, good illumination is also desirable.
In general, dill does not require particularly fertile soil, for it will be sufficient fertilizers that were applied for the previous crop, which grew in this place. Although rich crops are easier to obtain on moisture-bearing fertile soils. On dry soils, the plant begins to form a stem earlier, which reduces its value for sale. Growing greens for yourself, you can pluck individual leaves from such specimens or use them for seed production.
Varieties of dill
Dill of different varieties has almost no visual differences, except that the saturation of the green color of the leaves can vary and the degree of wax coating. Varieties may also vary in aroma and taste.
The collection dates of early and late varieties differ by 10 days. Early ripe dill is usually not so lush, less in weight. Another minus of early-ripening varieties is the rapid loss of presentation when the harvest is delayed, so timely cleaning is very relevant for them. These species are good seed suppliers in mid-range conditions. As a rule, early ripe dill is grown in film greenhouses and in open ground. Its main purpose is to ensure the harvest of early greens and growing for seeds.
Late-ripening varieties are characterized by rich foliage, a greater mass of a single instance. The harvesting period for them is about 2 weeks, the plants at this time are in the outlet phase. Sowing of late dill is carried out in May-June, the harvesting period falls in the summer months. Popular varieties are Kibray, Tetra.
Of late late ripening varieties are of interest. It is only worth considering that they are unsuitable for the middle band, but in the southern regions they manage to ripen. A typical feature of the varieties of the bush type is the slow development of the stem, while lateral shoots are formed in the axils of the leaves, which gives the plant the appearance of a bush.
For bush dill, the presence of a sufficiently large area of nutrition is important, otherwise its properties cannot manifest themselves to the necessary extent. The minimum row spacing is 15-20 cm, the same spaces should separate individual plants among themselves. Tighter plantings will not allow the formation of side shoots. During sowing between rows, approx. 20-30 cm. Under these conditions, the flower stalk will begin only at the beginning of the second half of July. Leaves are harvested for a month and a half, which is beneficial for amateur growers who can reduce the planting area. Sowing is carried out in the spring on open ground. Varieties related to the bush type: Gourmet, Salute, Russian size.
Growing for yourself
To always be able to treat yourself to fresh dill from your garden, you should practice multiple crops. Then the crop can be removed from May to October and always have your own greens on the table.
In the middle band, the periods of sowing and harvesting look something like this:
- in the second half of October - early November, winter sowing is carried out, which will give the very first dill crop in spring;
- in April - the first sowing in the new year immediately after adding soil, harvesting - in early summer;
- repeated sowing - from May to the first days of August, the time interval between them is approx. 2-3 weeks, which ensures yields of fresh dill from the 2nd half of July to 10-15 October.
Presowing seed treatment
Basically, two methods are practiced, the first of them is called “sparging”. It consists in soaking the seeds in water that is constantly saturated with oxygen. For oxygen saturation, amateur gardeners usually use an aquarium compressor. Sparging lasts 18-20 hours at a water temperature of 20 °.
Some seeds may spike during bubbling. Therefore, sowing is done immediately.
Another method is the usual soaking in water, a period of -2-3 days, and it is recommended to change the water every 6-7 hours. Prepared seeds are placed in thoroughly moistened soil.
The procedure does not require soil treatment with mineral or organic fertilizers. It is enough to water the grooves with water (during winter sowing, watering is not carried out). Then seeds are poured along the length of the furrow, which are sprinkled with dry earth from the sides. The sowing depth is 1-2 cm, this is affected by the type of soil. Sowing beds facilitates subsequent care for dill.
The distance between the rows should be left at 15 cm for growing on greens and at 20-30 cm - on the seeds.
The period of gathering greens usually occurs after 30-40 days. The collection method can be both selective (collection of large plants) and solid when all plants are removed. Typically, nutritional values are specimens that have reached 5 cm in height.
Delayed harvesting allows dill to grow up to 15-20 cm in height. In this case, it is necessary to quickly remove all the plants and process them, otherwise inflorescences will form and taste qualities will be lost. Gardeners leave a certain amount of plants from spring sowing to use for canning and pickling vegetables in the summer months or to collect seeds from them in the autumn.
Cultivation for the purpose of implementation
Since peaks in market prices and demand for dill are observed in spring and autumn, increased attention should be paid to growing greenery for sale at this particular time. Early dill is grown in greenhouses, for which the simplest film designs are quite suitable. It is early growing greenhouse greens that is most beneficial for business purposes.
So that the greenhouses do not stand idle in summer, you can grow cucumbers and tomatoes in them, so the graph for the middle strip when grown in a film greenhouse with air heating can look like this
- sowing dill on March 5-15, harvesting on April 20-25;
- cucumbers, tomato seedlings - from April 30 to August 10;
- repeated crops of dill from mid-July and harvesting from mid-August to mid-October.
For the greenhouse, it is recommended to use a reinforced film, the service life of which is 3-4 years, while it is worth removing it for the winter.
If only solar heating is used in the greenhouse, then the sowing dates are slightly shifted, then:
- sowing dill in the first ten days of April; harvest in May 10-20;
- for other crops (seedlings of cucumber, tomatoes, eggplant, etc.) we use a greenhouse from May 20 to September 20.
The creation of shelter for dill plantings allows you to extend the receipt of fresh greenery in the autumn, even without the help of greenhouses. For example, in an area where early potatoes, cabbage or onions are already harvested, you can sow greens in early August. When the cold weather begins in October, covering materials are pulled over dill beds, which will save them from frost. The collection falls on the first half of October, although in the presence of warm weather it can last until the end of October.
Tips for sowing for sale
The cultivation of greens for subsequent implementation, it is advisable to carry out using seeds that have undergone pre-processing, accelerating the harvest. In greenhouses and shelters you can apply horizontal and continuous sowing, while the latter is more profitable. The continuous scheme implies the placement of plants throughout the entire area of the greenhouse, with the exception of a 40-centimeter path running through the central part of the greenhouse. The recommended rate is 15 g seeds per square meter. meter.
It is worth considering that high yields of dill on open ground are most often harvested on light fertile and to a small extent clogged soils. The best option is to sow seeds after cabbage, cucumber and other crops for which the earth was fertilized with manure. Pre-sowing preparation of the soil may include the introduction of ammonium nitrate (200-300 kg / ha), superphosphate (100-150 kg / ha), as well as potassium chloride. More seeds (70-80 kg / ha) are sown on light soils than on heavy ones (40-60 kg / ha).
Leaving involves watering 2-3 times and if nitrogen fertilizers are required as a top dressing. Harvesting is best in the morning and placed in the refrigerator or in some kind of shelter. After removing the greens, it is possible to sow dill seeds again in the same area. Allowed up to three crops in one plot during the season.