Ceps grow in different regions and appear at different times. When collecting, you need to be able to distinguish edible white species from poisonous varieties.
In what places porcini mushroom likes to grow
The main mushroom spots are known only to experienced mushroom pickers. Only knowing in which places the "noble" whites grow, you can harvest a high crop. A distinctive feature of whites is their frequent habitat in close proximity to fly agaric. And the presence in the forest of large quantities of vegetables for boletus is unacceptable - on such soils the fruiting bodies of the porcini mushroom do not grow.
The high productivity of such a forest delicacy is characterized by pine and coniferous plantings, as well as old mixed and deciduous forests with a predominance of birch. It is in such massifs, after heavy rain, that the first fruiting bodies appear. If in the summer the weather is warm and rather humid for a long time, then the mushrooms will go "in waves." As practice shows, porcini mushroom grows even in the taiga. The optimum temperature regime for active fruiting in the period from July to the last decade of August is 15-18 ° C, and in September - not higher than 8-10 ° C.
Among other things, when searching for whites, you need to focus on the characteristics of the variety. The species is dark bronze most often grows in oak groves, in forest zones with an abundance of hornbeam and beech. The birch species prefers birch groves and forests, forest paths and edges. Pine boletus is rarely seen growing in spruce forests, and the spruce variety, on the contrary, is quite actively developing in fir and spruce plantations.
How quickly can you find a white mushroom in the forest
Types of porcini mushrooms
How long the whites or boletuses bear fruit, and when the active periods of mass fruiting begin, depends on the species characteristics. Usually, the period of complete ripening of the fruiting body takes only a few days, but after a couple of weeks the aboveground part begins to age actively. Nineteen forms of ceps are known, of which the spruce and pine varieties, as well as birch, oak and dark bronze species, which should be properly processed after collection, are most common. From fruit bodies, you can make both the first and second courses, as well as all kinds of snacks and preparations.
White mushroom birch
B.betulicola - also known by the name of Colossus. The cap has a pillow-shaped or flatter shape, covered with a smooth or slightly wrinkled, shiny, whitish-ocher or light yellow skin. The mushroom pulp is white, of dense structure, with a pronounced mushroom aroma. The leg is barrel-shaped, of a continuous type, with a very characteristic whitish-brownish staining and a superficial white mesh. It differs in the formation of mycorrhiza with birch plantings.
White summer mushroom
B. reticulatus is one of the earliest and most common varieties, with a spherical, convex or cushioned cap part with slightly velvety or characteristic cracking surface skin of coffee, brownish, grayish-brown, leathery-brown or ocher staining. The area of the legs is club-shaped or cylindrical, covered with a whitish or brown mesh pattern. The pulp is sufficiently dense or slightly spongy, springy, white, with a pleasant mushroom aroma and sweet taste.
Boletus edulis dark bronze
B.aeraus - has a rather large cap part, with a tubular layer adhered to the leg area. The leg is relatively high, stocky, powerful. The flesh is white, fairly hard in youth and softer in adults. There is a fairly mild mushroom aroma and a pleasant taste.
B.junquilleus - is distinguished by a convex and hemispherical, sometimes flatter cap part, covered with a smooth or slightly wrinkled, yellowish-brown skin. Pulp with sufficient density, without pronounced mushroom aroma, bright yellow staining, quickly bluish on the cut. The leg is powerful and quite thick, tuberous, of a continuous type, tan, with a characteristic mesh pattern on the surface.
B.imrolitus - forms a cap part that is convex, pillow-shaped or stretched in shape with a velvety or smooth clay skin. A reddish, light gray or olive shade may be present on the surface. The area of the legs is a squat type, tuberoid-swollen or cylindrical in shape, with a slight roughness or covered with a not too pronounced mesh pattern. The flesh is thick-fleshy, pale yellow staining, not changing color on the cut, with a sweet taste and slightly carbolic aroma.
B. arndiculatus - has a yellowish-brown, reddish-brown or brownish-brown hat, the surface of which can be velvety, pubescent and matte, with very little longitudinal fibrillation. The shape of the hat is semicircular or convex. Leg with a mesh pattern, lemon yellow or reddish-brownish color, cylindrical or club-shaped in shape. Pulp with sufficient density, intensely yellow staining, on the cut blue, with a pleasant taste and mushroom aroma.
When and where are porcini mushrooms harvested in Russia
Noble whites are characterized by the formation of mycorrhiza with plants in deciduous forests and coniferous plantings. Most often, fruiting bodies form under birches and oaks, pines and firs. Massively and solitaryly grows in various types of forests, but is extremely rare on waterlogged soils. Abundant fruiting is observed from June to mid-October. On the territory of our country, porcini mushrooms live mainly in the European part. A high level of fruiting is observed in Western Siberia and the North Caucasus. Eastern Siberia and the Far East do not differ in the abundance of "noble" whites.
Where porcini mushrooms grow in Ukraine
Favorable soil and climatic indicators in Ukraine create very favorable conditions for the growth and development of fruiting bodies. Especially famous and appreciated among mushroom pickers Verkhovyna in the Carpathians, Bukovina in the Chernivtsi region, Mukachevo district and Transcarpathia, Lviv and Ternopil regions, as well as Polesie and the territory of the Zhytomyr forests.
The abundance of whites is noted in the Chernihiv forests and on both sides of the Kiev Sea. In the large forests located in the Cherkasy region there are also places rich in porcini mushrooms. In warm and humid summers, you can go on a “silent hunt” in the Uman district of Cherkasy region, where boletus is quite active and long-term fruiting in several forest zones at once: Sinitsko-Palansky forestry, near the villages of Gorodetskoye and Romanovka.
How ceps grow
Season and gathering places of porcini mushrooms in Germany
It should be noted that More than one thousand species of mushrooms grow in the forests of Germany and neighboring countries. The southern part of Germany is famous for a large number of deciduous forests, but mushroom pickers are extremely rare. The German population prefers to buy mushrooms in stores where champignons and oyster mushrooms grown in greenhouse conditions are sold year-round, and for several months such forest mushrooms as ceps and real chanterelles.
“Noble” whites grow in almost all forest zones and mixed plantings in the country. However, it must be remembered that according to German law, in some forest areas there is a ban on picking forest mushrooms. For example, in Bavaria, collecting more than 400 g of fruit bodies will be punished by a rather high fine.
Where and when to look for porcini mushrooms in Belarus
A significant amount of mushroom land is located near Vitebsk and Minsk. The most popular mushroom places include Logoisk, Khatyn forests, as well as the villages of Ilya and Columns and plantings near the Talka station. The abundance of whites grows outside the territory of the recreation center "Economist" and towards the village of Mikolaevschina, as well as in forest zones near Logoisk, Pleshchenitsy and Zembin.
Experienced mushroom pickers are well aware that for the mass appearance of the fruiting bodies of macromycetes of the accessory body, a period of frequent but fairly moderate rains, as well as a temperature regime of 18-20 ° C, are necessary. It is these conditions that are most favorable for abundant fruiting and contribute to the highest possible yield of forest boletus.