Hygrophors (Hygrohorus) are fungi of the lamellar genus and the Hygrophoric family. The genus includes species that are most often distinguished by fruiting bodies of medium size and having convex mucous membranes that are dim or whitish.
Botanical description of hygrophoric fungi
The main characteristics of such varieties are:
- the formation of the mucosa, convex, often enough with the presence of an eminence in the central part, softly colored hats in white, gray, olive, yellow and reddish tones;
- the formation of a cylindrical, fairly dense, mucous, one staining with a hat, a solid leg;
- the formation of rare, thickened, waxy type, descending, whitish, yellow or pinkish staining of the plates.
Spore powder of such varieties has a very characteristic whitish color.
Where to collect hygrophors in the fall
Edible species of hygrophors
The genus Nygrorhorus includes about four dozen species, many of which are edible, tasty and healthy for the human body.
Нygr.marzuоlus - an early edible species, also known as March or snow mushroom. It forms a thick, fleshy, centrally located or eccentric hat of a convex or flat, rarely slightly depressed shape. The surface part with very uneven curvature and wavy edges, covered with smooth and dry, with a slight fibrous pubescence, the skin is light gray, whitish, lead gray or blackish with numerous spots.
Edible and sufficiently dense in consistency, the pulp has a white or slightly grayish tint, a faint and pleasant mushroom aroma. The solid leg is shortened, thick enough, unevenly cylindrical or slightly curved, often with thinning in the lower part. Dyeing white or grayish.
The edible species is also known as the late hygrophor with a classic hat of olive-brown or brownish-brown color, a slightly convex shape with slightly curved inward edges. The surface part with a mucous coating, lighter edges and a dark colored central part.
The leg is cylindrical in shape, with a yellowish or olive color. Young specimens have a special ring that disappears with age. The classic type is yellow or light orange, relatively sparse, but thick plates. The soft part is fragile, without a pronounced mushroom smell.
Conditionally edible species of hygrophors
Some conditionally edible varieties have unique and very high taste characteristics that are not inherent in even the most "noble" mushrooms of the edible category. but such fruiting bodies are categorically not recommended to be eaten raw for food purposes.
Hygrophore olive white
Нyg.olivaseoalbus - conditionally edible basidiomycetecharacterized by hat-legged and relatively thin-fleshy fruit bodies. The area of the cap of such a mushroom can be hemispherical, obtuse, convex and flattened, rarely with a slight depression or elevation in the central part. The surface part, covered with a mucous layer, is grayish-brown or olive-brown, with a darker central part. Rare waxy-type plates grow to the pedicle and descend slightly, may have a branching or interwoven appearance, white or cream color.
The soft part is white, sometimes with a yellowish tinge. In the area of the peduncle, the pulp has a pronounced fibrillation. Mushroom aroma or taste is completely absent or mild. The leg is of a central arrangement, cylindrical or spindle-shaped, with a common mucous or private fibrous bedspread, which then quickly opens and forms a mucous type, a short-lived ring. Spores are pure white in color, elliptical in shape.
Hygrophore olive white in the forest
Edible variety with a grayish or brownish convex or flat hat, covered with a fairly smooth or slightly sticky skin. The leg is cylindrical, grayish in color. The pulp is white or grayish in color with an olive tint, a relative soft, loose and watery consistency, with a pronounced almond flavor. It grows on soils of pine plantations and spruce forests in the period from the last ten days of August until October. Fruit bodies are used in pickling or pickling.
Нyg.russula is a basidiomycete belonging to the genus Gigrofor and the family Gigroforovy (Нygriorhoraceae). It is characterized by fleshy flesh and a pale pinkish color. Widely fruiting bodies of this variety were obtained on the territory of broad-leaved forest zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The species belongs to the category of cap-leg mushrooms. The cap is hemispherical, convex, with a depression or flattened, sometimes with folded edges. The surface is smooth, with small scale, sometimes sticky-mucous, whitish-pink, with pinkish spots. The central part of a pinkish-red or wine-red color.
The plates are often located, grown and slightly downward type, lilac-pinkish staining. The pulp is of sufficient density, white, turning pink when pressed, having a faint and powdery aroma, in the absence of special taste. Very characteristic central foot, with the presence of a very weak narrowing in the lower part. Some specimens have a club-shaped or spindle-shaped leg, with an almost white surface and the presence of pinkish-brownish spots. The spores are white.
Нyg.аgаthоsmus is a variety of basidiomycetes belonging to the genus Hygrophor and the family Hygrophoric (Нygrhorhorosease). Fruit bodies of cap-scab type, with sufficient flesh flesh. A hat of medium diameter, convex or flat-convex in shape, with folded edges and adhesive or mucous, grayish, tan or dirty whitish surface, with an olive shade. Rare records, waxy type, adhered to the surface of the legs, whitish or slightly grayish staining.
The soft part of the fruit body is whitish or pale gray, relatively soft consistency, with a pronounced mushroom aroma and delicate notes similar to bitter almonds, celery or anise.
Taste characteristics of the conditionally edible variety are rather mediocre, since the taste of the pulp of fruiting bodies is often fresh. The leg area is centrally located, cylindrical in shape, with a dry or somewhat moist, but not mucous surface, white or grayish staining. The surface may have partial pubescence in the upper part, and is often characterized by the presence of powdery coating or small-scaled pattern. Spore powder of a characteristic white color.
Conditionally edible variety, characterized by a hat of a whitish pink or purple color. It is characterized by the formation of a conical or slightly convex shaped cap with slightly curved inward and pubescent edges. The surface coating of the hats is slightly sticky.
Places and features of the collection of hygrophors
A significant part of the species grows in pine plantations, forming fruiting bodies from the second half of the first autumn month until stable autumn temperatures occur. Many species enter fruiting in early spring, which allows mushroom pickers to diversify their table with tasty and healthy, nutritious mushroom dishes.
Almost all edible varieties of this family belong to the category of highly nutritious mushrooms, have very rich taste characteristics and are often used in the preparation of various soups, hot and cold snacks, as well as main dishes.
Features of hygrophors
Useful and healing properties of hygrophors
Almost all fruiting bodies formed by hygrophoric fungi are characterized by a large number of useful properties and healing characteristics. The mushroom flesh of such varieties is extremely rich in increased amounts of vitamins, amino acids and trace elements, including vitamins "A", "PP", group "B" and ascorbic acid.
The main minerals are phosphorus, calcium, potassium, sulfur, sodium, manganese, zinc and iodine. Among other things, such fruiting bodies belong to the category of very tasty, but low-calorie foods, therefore, they contribute to weight loss and effectively remove toxins of various origins from the human body.